The sun is an unlimited source of free solar energy. There are literally a couple of hundred years of resources left on the planet, but sunlight will delight us for at least another 4 billion years. In order to get electricity from solar energy, you need a solar panel. Now let’s answer the question of how a solar panel works.
The main element in a solar panel is a semiconductor. As a rule, it is made from silicon.
A semiconductor consists of 2 plates of material. In one layer there is a lack of electrons, and in the other there is an overabundance. Due to this, dissonance is created, and electrons jump from one layer to another.
The photons of the sun enter the top layer of the battery, then they are absorbed by the active layer of crystalline silicon.
When interacting with silicon, light particles push silicon atoms (or other material) out of their place. A potential difference arises, and free electrons move, looking for a new home and trying to extinguish changes in the structure of matter. This creates a flow of electric current.
Since silicon is a semiconductor, the current will move in one direction. This generates a direct current.
The resulting current must be converted into alternating and a certain voltage and current. For this, an inverter and a controller are installed in the system. The resulting electricity goes directly to the output or is sent to the battery. The current accumulates in the battery and, if necessary, it will be delivered to the sockets when the solar station is not working.
Solar panels consume light for work, and not the solar heat itself, therefore they have the ability to produce energy in winter – the main thing is that there is no strong cloudiness.
How efficiently a solar panel functions depends on the efficiency factor. In conventional panels, it is no more than 25%. If you connect a tracking system, the efficiency can be doubled. These indicators are obtained due to the fact that the panels are constantly turned towards the sun.